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12 Principles of Animation: Moho & Anime Studio Pro
WIP Character Design
# | Principle of Animation | Definition | Application

Character Design

12 | Appeal | There are several tricks for making a character connect better with the audience; for likable characters a symmetrical or particularly baby-like face tends to be effective. | Simple shapeCylindricalHappy/ JoyfulBouncy/ Squishy/ Stretchy

11 | Solid Drawing | Giving them volume and weight. One thing in particular that Johnston and Thomas warned against was creating "twins": characters whose left and right sides mirrored each other, and looked lifeless. | Start off drawing solid shapes in 3dimensions to form the character
Spheres (Eyes)Cylinder + Spherical top (Body)Rectangles (Ears)

Character Rigging

1.  | Squash & Stretch | The purpose of which is to give a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects. Taken to an extreme point, a figure stretched or squashed to an exaggerated degree can have a comical effect. In realistic animation, however, the most important aspect of this principle is the fact that an object's volume does not change when squashed or stretched. | Add squash and stretch bone dynamicsAdd layer squash and stretch. Origin set at bottom of character

5. | Follow Through | "Follow through" means that loosely tied parts of a body should continue moving after the character has stopped and the parts should keep moving beyond the point where the character stopped only to be subsequently "pulled back" towards the center of mass and/or exhibiting various degrees of oscillation damping. | Setting up the ears and body parts for overlapping action and follow through

| Overlapping Action | Overlapping action - "Overlapping action" is the tendency for parts of the body to move at different rates (an arm will move on different timing of the head and so on). A third, related technique is "drag", where a character starts to move and parts of him take a few frames to catch up. These parts can be inanimate objects like clothing or the antenna on a car, or parts of the body, such as arms or hair. On the human body, the torso is the core, with arms, legs, head and hair appendices that normally follow the torso's movement. Body parts with much tissue, such as large stomachs and breasts, or the loose skin on a dog, are more prone to independent movement than bonier body parts. Again, exaggerated use of the technique can produce a comical effect, while more realistic animation must time the actions exactly, to produce a convincing result. | Setting up the ears and body parts for overlapping action and follow through
Character Animation

3. | Staging | Its purpose is to direct the audience's attention, and make it clear what is of greatest importance in a scene. Johnston and Thomas defined it as "the presentation of any idea so that it is completely and unmistakably clear", whether that idea is an action, a personality, an expression, or a mood. | Create a mini storyboard showing how we want to plan out our scene/ staging

9. | Timing | Timing refers to the number of drawings or frames for a given action, which translates to the speed of the action on film. | We will start off by blocking out our main posesThen go through and fix the in-betweensAnimate overlapping actionAdd dragSquash and Stretch

2. | Anticipation | Anticipation is used to prepare the audience for an action, and to make the action appear more realistic. | Before the rabbit begins jumping we will set up our anticipation of him crouching down and getting ready to jump

8. | Secondary Action | Adding secondary actions to the main action gives a scene more life, and can help to support the main action. A person walking can simultaneously swing their arms or keep them in their pockets, speak or whistle, or express emotions through facial expressions. | We will give our character two moods - determined and joyful. The character will make his first attempts at bouncing while being cheered on by friends

6. | Ease In and Ease Out | The movement of the human body, and most other objects, needs time to accelerate and slow down. For this reason, animation looks more realistic if it has more drawings near the beginning and end of an action, emphasizing the extreme poses, and fewer in the middle. | This will be shown throughout the process of animating

7. | Arc | Most natural action tends to follow an arched trajectory, and animation should adhere to this principle by following implied "arcs" for greater realism. This technique can be applied to a moving limb by rotating a joint, or a thrown object moving along a parabolic trajectory |

10. | Exaggeration | Exaggeration is an effect especially useful for animation, as animated motions that strive for a perfect imitation of reality can look static and dull. | 

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